The High Court is the supreme judicial body in a state. According to Article 214, each state of India shall have a High Court. However, Article 231 also mentions that there can be a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more states and a union territory.
There are 25 High Courts in India, six having control over more than one State/UT. Delhi has a High Court of its own among the Union Territories. Each High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges as appointed by the President of India.
List of Total Number of High Courts in India
The number of High Courts in India is 25. The list is given below:
|Year||Name||Territorial Jurisdiction||Seat & Bench|
|1862||Bombay||Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman Diu, Goa||Seat: Mumbai Bench: Panaji, Aurangabad, and Nagpur|
|1862||Kolkata||West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar islands||Seat: Kolkata Bench: Port Blair|
|1862||Madras||Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry||Seat: Chennai Bench: Madurai|
|1866||Allahabad||Uttar Pradesh||Seat: Allahabad Bench: Lucknow|
|1884||Karnataka||Karnataka||Seat: Bengaluru Bench: Dharwad and Gulbarga|
|1948||Guwahati||Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh||Seat: Guwahati Bench: Kohima, Aizawl, and Itanagar|
|1949||Rajasthan||Rajasthan||Seat: Jodhpur Bench: Jaipur|
|1956||Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh||Seat: Jabalpur Bench: Gwalior and Indore|
|1958||Kerala||Kerala & Lakshadweep||Ernakulam|
|1971||Himachal Pradesh||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla|
|1975||Punjab & Haryana||Punjab, Haryana & Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|2019||Andhra Pradesh||Andhra Pradesh||Amravati|
|2019||Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh(Note: In 1928, Jammu & Kashmir high court was established. Post-bi-furcation of J&K into two union territories; there is now a common high court.)||Jammu and Kashmir|
Important Terms related to High Courts in India:
Tribunal – A tribunal is a term for anybody acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate appearing before a Court on which a single Judge was sitting could describe that judge as ‘their tribunal’.
Permanent Bench – A permanent bench comprises of one or more High Court judges who sit yearlong at a particular location that is different from the permanent seat of the High Court.
Circuit Bench – A Circuit Bench is for territories which are far-flung but do not have too many matters to justify a full-fledged permanent bench. As a result, once or twice a year, some judges travel to these areas and dispose off all the High Court appeals of that jurisdiction.
Division Bench – In a Division Bench, a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges.
Full Bench – A Full bench refers to a court of law consisting of a greater-than-normal number of judges.