International [Instruments and Treaties protecting rights of women…

CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination of Women), 1979, and its optional protocol.

Convention on Nationality of Married Women (1957)

Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960)

Beijing Declaration (platform for action)

Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergencies and Armed Conflict

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1951)

Equal Remuneration Convention (1951)

Convention on the Consent of Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage & Registration (1962)

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination of Women was adopted on December 18th, 1979.

– Part I (Articles 1-6) focuses on non-discrimination, sex stereotypes, and sex trafficking.

– Part I (Articles 7-9) outlines women’s rights in the public sphere with an emphasis on political life, representation, and rights to nationality.

– Part IIT (Articles 10-14) describes the economic and social rights of women, particularly focusing on education, employment, and health. Part ITI also includes special protections for rural women and the problems they face.

– Part IV (Article 15 and 16) outlines women’s right to equality in marriage and family life along with the right to equality before the law.

– Part V (Articles 17-22) establishes the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women as well as the states parties’ reporting procedure.

– Part VI (Articles 23-30) describes the effects of the Convention on other treaties, the commitment of the state’s parties and the administration of the Convention.


Children’s rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) (CRC) defines a child as any human person who has not reached the age of eighteen years. Children’s rights include their right to association with both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for physical protection, food, universal state-paid education, health care, and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child’s civil nights, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child’s race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, religion, disability, colour, ethnicity, or other characteristics. Child rights are specialized human rights that apply to all human beings below the age of 18. The complaint to this convention is monitored by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. The committee submits a report to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly annually. The committee is a body of 18 Independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by its State parties.

There are two types of rights exist for children.

1.General rights – the right to security of the person, to freedom from inhuman, cruel, or degrading treatment, and the right to special protection during childhood.

2.Particular rights – the right to life, the right to a name, the right to express his views in matters concerning the child, the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the right to health care, the right to protection from economic and sexual exploitation, and the right to education.


It was adopted by the UNGA in 2000. It entered into force on 18 January 2002. Article 1 of the protocol requires parties to protect the rights and interests of child victims of trafficking, child prostitution and child pornography, child labour and especially the worst forms of child labour. Article 2 defines the prohibition:

Sale of children — Act whereby child is transferred between persons for remuneration/consideration.

Child prostitution – Use ofa child in sexual activities for remuneration or any other form of consideration.

Child pornography – Any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for primarily sexual purposes.

The remaining articles in the protocol outline the standards for international law enforcement covering diverse issues such as jurisdictional factors, extradition, mutual assistance in investigations, criminal or extradition proceedings and seizure and confiscation of assets as well.

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